Junkers factories

  1. 16.1. Site Junkers factories
  2. 16.2. Junkers & Co
  3. 16.3. Junkers-Flugzeugwerk (Ifa) [aeroplane factory]
  4. 16.4. Junkers-Motorenbau (Jumo) [engine production]
  5. 16.5. Junkers guesthouse

16.1. Site Junkers factories

When selecting the location and designing the Junkers factories in the district of Dessau west, landscape and cityscape were considered equally. So, the Junkers companies set up in the west part of Dessau from 1908, were not only divided according to technological or process engineering considerations. Each factory can be recognised as an individual company in its structure (municipal area) and in this way combats industrial monotony.

Junkers factories Dessau, layoutplan 1923.

16.2. Junkers & Co

Cöthener Kreisstraße, 1928, now Junkersstr. 35/36

Promotional leaflets for Junkers water heaters according to combustion construction and based on electricity, 1928/29.

16.3. Junkers-Flugzeugwerk (Ifa) [aeroplane factory]

Junkers steel hall in panel construction as painting plant, outer and inner view, 1929.

Cöthener Kreisstraße, now Junkersstr. 42 and 52

Trial assembly of a Junkers steel house from segmented components in the aeroplane working area, 1931.

Junkers factory buildings for aeroplane and engine production, 1928. Aeroplane advertising in 1927.

16.4. Junkers-Motorenbau (Jumo) [engine production]

Promotion for the internationally highly regarded Junkers-Motorenbau, 1928.

Cöthener Kreisstraße, now Junkersstr. 42 and 52

Research and construction office of Otto-Mader-Werk, architect Werner Issel with the architectural office of the Hugo-Junkers factories 1938.

JFM-Motorenwerk & Otto-Mader-Werk, today's Junkersstr. 42 and 52. Since the national socialists seized power in Germany in January 1933, they were permanently attempting to force the democrat and pacifist Hugo Junkers out of his factories, by hook or by crook, to have free reign for their expansion efforts. On behalf of the Reich Air Ministry Berlin, the Senior Public Prosecutor's Office Dessau and Anhalt constructed an accusation of treason against the country, against Hugo Junkers, using the so called "Enabling Act", as a result of which he was expropriated in autumn 1933, and placed under police house arrest. He had to leave the city of Dessau, he was no longer allowed to enter his factories, and he was even forbidden to contact his erstwhile employees. Hugo Junkers died on 3 February 1935, on his 76th birthday, in his house in Gauting near Munich. (see: www.junkers.de)

After Junkers' expropriation, the erstwhile Hugo Junkers factories - aeroplane construction and engine factory - merged to become a state-owned group "Junkers Flugzeug- und -Motorenwerke AG (JFM)" in June 1936. The good name of "Junkers" was calculatedly retained for the new public limited company, and his patents and scientific and technical knowledge were successfully used. Equipped in this way, and financed by the NS state, the group experienced a rapid technical and scientific development until 1940, which served military armament and ultimate led to the Second World War. In his diary entries, Hugo Junkers described the political conditions at the beginning of the 1930s in Germany.: "The political waves are rising. Man is fighting against man... Hate and a thirst for revenge are bad forces, they lead into the abyss."

As a research and development site for high performance aeroplane engines, from 1938 the Otto-Mader factory, part of the state-owned group, emerged directly next to the JFM engine factory. The designs for administration buildings, construction offices and teaching sites of the group came from the Berlin architect Werner Issel. Walter Issel who worked for the Reich Air Ministry procured the orders. The projects were carried out by the JFM construction department, and Junkers-Stahlbau until the beginning of the Second World War. Architect Werner Issel said the following, after criticism in the magazine "Monatshefte für Baukunst und Städtebau" 1939 [Monthly magazine for architecture and town planning]:"Of course it would be a huge exaggeration, if an architect wanted to talk about his buildings at the end of the work, because the engineer has an equally large percentage in many, and the biggest in some. But it was the task of the architect to give form to the will of the engineer, where he is the decision maker on the work, which seems convincing, without concealing or making anything more expensive."

But the design part of Junkers civil engineers is still easily recognisable in Werner Issel's projects. Particularly the screwed Junkers steel constructions enabled the quick construction of the large building complex, and the elegant solutions for staircase design refer to the modern architectural concept of the 1920s.

16.6. Junkers guesthouse

The erstwhile Junkers guesthouse presents itself to today's visitors, in the form of a Neo-Baroque villa.

Junkers guesthouse, Hünefeldstraße 3, district Alten. In the context of spectacular technical developments in aeroplane construction, the Junkers factories required a prestigious guesthouse, e.g. to prepare for crossing the Atlantic from Europe to North America with two Junkers aeroplanes, type W 33 ("Bremen" and "Europe"). Therefore, Junkers acquired the villa of the former manufacturer Robert Rekulé in 1927, in the district of Alten, near to the airfield, which was designed by the Cologne architect Hermann Eberhard Pflaume around 1908, in the Neo-Baroque style. Via an outdoor staircase, you get to a entrance area decorated with pillars, which in turn leads to a foyer spanning two storeys. Large, light rooms, sometimes opulently furnished, and an imposing outdoor terrace on the garden side, made it an ideal property as a guesthouse.

The Junkers architectural office took on the conversion. The guests were provided with comfortable accommodation, through furnishing with state of the art technical equipment produced by Junkers, and an excellent service. Entries in the guest book of the hotel are a testament to celebrities from Europe and overseas, who praised the pleasant stay, and thanked Junkers factories for the visit.

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