"Eiserne Stadt" (Iron City)

  1. 7.1. Steel high-rise building project "Eiserne Stadt"
  2. 7.2. Junkers & Co first factory building
  3. 7.3. Pavilion at the tennis court of the allotment garden community called "Zur Pyramide"

7.1. Steel high-rise building project "Eiserne Stadt""

The Bauhaus master Georg Muche, manager of the weaving factory visited the Dessauer Waggonfabrik in 1925. The finished railway carriages stood behind the large building in which the final assembly of the carriages took place. "Like houses made of iron" is how the ambitious artist described them, who was also involved in creative and experimental architecture. During his Bauhaus time in Dessau, he often consulted the Junkers Stahlbau and the Junkers construction company.

He became known for his experimental building "Stahlhaus" in the Südstraße located on the edge of the Bauhaus development. In the spring of 1927, Muche designed a steel high-rise building in northern Dessau, on the corner of Albrechtstraße and Querallee, directly on the railway line in the direction of Roßlau. It was a structure that was supposed to symbolise the modernity of the northern approach road into the city and be potently complement the historical skyline of the city with its towers. It was an interesting urban-development project that was created with the support of the Junker's construction company, but which then had no further role to play after Muches switch to Johannes Ittens private art school in Berlin.

7.2. Junkers & Co first factory building

The oldest company building designed by Prof. Hugo Junkers is to be found in Albrechtstraße, in the direction of Roßlau and was completed in 1895.

The first factory building of "Junkers & Co", Dessau, Albrechtstraße 47. The building was constructed in 1895 and was based on the industrial architecture of his father's, Heinrich Junkers, weaving operation, from Rheydt am Niederrhein. Hugo Junkers used the potential for flexible design offered by the primary load-bearing system that had been developed during the Victorian era in 19th-century England, and adapted this to his technological manufacturing circumstances for thermal-technical devices. This is how the Junkers grid-construction system came into existence, a principle to which he would stay true in all his industrial building projects up until 1922.

These non-plastered brick buildings were traditionally kept simple and their architectural was bound by the Gründerzeit period of the late 19th century. The load-bearing construction did, however, display the typical Junker's innovations, which made cost and time saving alterations to the spaces possible. Professor Junkers no longer regarded the principle of cubic bulk structuring as purely architecturally-aesthetic, but primarily as a mathematical-physical task, in which the structural and economic aspects receive a fundamental dominance. Something which should be a defining feature of his buildings.

On the front wall facing the street, Hugo Junkers put up large illuminated company advertising on the front wall facing the street, something completely new for Dessau, and so marked himself out a pioneer in this area as well.

7.3. Pavilion on the tennis court at the allotment garden community "Zur Pyramide" (a part of the allotment garden community remains)

The steel-panel pavilion at the Junkers tennis court provided modern architecturally-artistic features. With its large interior and exterior space, in the "luxury of simplicity" of a modern piece of furniture, it offered the lifestyle of the Bauhaus philosophy. The allotment garden community remained a popular meeting place for sport and recreational enthusiasts for many decades.

Pavilion on the tennis court at the allotment garden community "Zur Pyramide" located at the Albrechtstraße in the northern part of the city. The Junkers family enjoyed playing tennis here. The pavilion was erected in the self-supporting Junkers steel-panel construction style in 1929. The overhanging roof on the terrace side was a statically-structural particularity of the pavilion, which on the one hand provided extra protection, while on the other, allowing the area underneath also to be used as a roof garden. The entire interior design was made up of the newly-developed metal furniture from the Junker factories. This resulted in a unity of design of the interior and external architecture, a pavilion as a single, complete work of art which is reflected in the Junker's advertising. The structure was demolished in 1971.

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