"Dessau-Nord" (North Dessau)

  1. 8.1. Professor Hugo Junkers private home
  2. 8.2. Two-family house for leading Junkers employees
  3. 8.3. Badeanstalt Rehsumpf

8.1. Professor Hugo Junkers private home

A villa build during the Gründerzeit period, but with a modern family, very much in keeping with the zeitgeist of the time, a family which played an important role in the intellectual, cultural and scientific live well beyond the boundaries of its home city, while also always contributing to social issues.

Professor Hugo Junkers home, Albrechtstraße 109, a middle-class home from the Gründerzeit period in the direct vicinity of the Petruskirche (Church of St. Peter) and to the Funkplatz (square). Hugo and Therese Junkers bought the house in 1923 on the occasion of their silver wedding anniversary. The Junkers family had twelve children, seven daughter and five sons. In 1933 their idyllic family life came to an abrupt end. Hugo Junkers was forced to leave Dessau by the Nazis on October 18th, 1933, the city's whose economic, political, cultural and social life he did so much to influence, due to a fabricated threat of prosecution for treason.

At the beginning of 1923, Professor Junkers had the house fitted out with various thermal-technical devices from his own manufacturing company. He turned his private home, his castle, into his "personal experimentation laboratory" in order to test the practical feasibility of the products that his company produced. This resulted in him creating approximately 55 patent specifications in the area of thermal-technical application in the years from 1924 through to 1933. Among these patented innovations were the water-saving bathtub, various heating stoves and wall air heaters, hot-water heater, automatic temperature regulators, innovative mixer water taps for bathroom boilers and warm-water devices, as well as shower-heads in a range of versions and modern designs.

The interior design of his family home was also in keeping with the modern zeitgeist of the 1920s. A cooperative working relationship was already entered into with Bauhaus in Weimar in 1923. Junkers & Co. installed the required warm-water appliances for the experiment house am Horn. The Bauhaus students now work in the Professor Junkers private office and design the living areas in the Junkers house. In 1926, Marcel Breuer, head of the Bauhaustischlerei (Bauhaus joinery), took over the entire kitchen interior with built-in cupboards, service hatch, tables, drip shelf and cabinets together with his workshop. High and deep wardrobes were created for the bedroom, and these were complemented with a mirrored toilet alcove for Ms Junkers and a tapestry from the Bauhaus weaving mill. Numerous pieces of tubular furniture from Marcel Breuer set modern trends with the apparent lightness of their design in the Junkers villa in middle-class design. In 1930, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who would later go on to become Bauhaus director, designed the study with undulating tubular armchair and elegant glass table, as well as a seating corner in the houses foyer. The wall-painting department at Bauhaus provided the various colour designs in the different rooms, although bright colours dominated.

The open-minded attitude that the Junker family had toward Bauhaus and its ideas could not only be seen in the member ship of not only Professor Junker, but also his daughter among the Bauhaus fans. He not only tolerated the artistic Avantgarde, but supported it, and sought to have contact and interaction with intellectuals. This also included becoming involved in social projects, such as the financial support of the Bauhaus canteen and providing midday meals to Bauhaus students on Sundays in their home. The job orders that the Junkers factories gave to Bauhaus, and which were then carried out by Bauhaus, not only ensured income for the Bauhaus-Gesellschaft mbH, but also provided the opportunity for creativity and innovation to thrive in both domains. These highlights of innovation came to a bitter and abrupt end with the closure of the Bauhaus in Dessau from the 1st of October, 1932, and the expropriation and expulsion from Germany of Hugo Junkers on the 18th of October, 1933.

The appearance of the Junkers home changed significantly due to effects of the war.

On the 3rd of February, 1984, on the occasion of his 125th birthday, a plaque was unveiled on the house in Albrechtstraße 109 to commemorate his significant influence as engineer, scientist, aeronautics pioneer, industrialist, democrat and global citizen.

8.2. Two-family house for leading Junkers employees

The house continues to radiate an aura right up until the present day and fascinates due to its structural-artistic design and interesting colours. The wall frieze in particular is impressive thanks to its wide variety of forms and the alternating effect between art and technique.

Two-family house for leading Junkers employees as a corner building, Ringstraße/Ecke Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Straße at the Schillerpark in Stadtteil Nord, 1923/24. An experimental structure from the early construction history involving the use of applied thermal technology built for workers employed the Junkers factories. Leading employees and pilots lived in these houses together with their families and supported the practically-oriented Junkers research involving thermal-technology based gas "test" devices in the house. This meant that not only the rooms in each house were divided differently, but each house also had a different principles of heat supply and the discharge of exhaust gasses.

Prior to the implementation of this project, tests were conducted in wind tunnels in order to test the physical behaviour of gases of differing concentrations following their combustion in the airflow on a model of a house. These tests led to the development of new types of chimney extractor hoods which were aimed at eliminating the build-up of unwanted generations of smoke and to prevent the uncontrolled occurrence of carbon-monoxide. Unfortunately during the reconstruction of the building in 1997, these experimental systems could not be recreated, which meant that interesting technical objects exemplifying Junker ideas were lost.

The wind-tunnel tests conducted before the construction of the house was begun with provided the realisation that in the case of such buildings, the loss of heat at its corners was far higher. It was for this reason that the Junkers construction company rounded the edges of the corner building and the bays; this created a flowing design and so achieved an efficient heat efficiency rate.

In accordance with the wishes of Professor Junkers, the structural-artistic design of the building should be adapted to match the appearance of the neighbouring Jugendstil building. This was achieved with a circumferential wall frieze, which displayed images of baroque cherubs holding technical devices produced by Junkers factories. An interesting artistic work produced by the Dessau sculpture Paul Brenning and in this form an artistic speciality, which can still be admired right up until today.

8.3. Badeanstalt Rehsumpf

With the amenities such as communal family showers, flood-proof leisure-time and social buildings that the Junkers construction office built for the Badeanstalt Rehsumpf in Dessau, it created social buildings that would go on to set the standard for future such projects.

Badeanstalt Rehsumpf. The swimming club "Dessauer Schwimmklub von 1904, e.V. Dessau-Jonitz/Rosenthal" located on a branch of a river between the Jonitzer Mühle (Mill) and the city district Wasserstadt, known todays simply as Rehsumpf was the private leisure-time location for the Junker family. Professor Hugo Junkers owned a small bathing house here, which developed into a location where the nature and sport fans among Dessau's citizens could relax and enjoy time together during the warm days of summer. Leisure time and recuperation could be enjoyed here, but it was also very likely a place for stimulating in a cultural-intellectual, as well as social sense. It was here that Dessau's citizens got the chance to experience their "Professor" as a private and nature-loving person with a competitive streak when it came to sport, as a fellow citizen and as a father. He actively used his companies Junkers & Co und Kaloriferwerk in order to support bathing culture, and had hygiene facilities and amenities built and installed open-air swimming pools and indoor swimming pools in Dessau, while also sponsoring shower facilities and refreshment dispensers. His commissioned his construction company to create flood-proof social-purpose buildings made of metal. A range of draft designs were created for these temporary houses with large sun terraces, pavilions, raised vantage points for lifeguards, diving towers and refreshment stands. All these amenities were the tangible display of his strong commitment to social recreational-sports projects in Dessau.

© 2022 Junkers-Pfad Dessau. Alle Rechte vorbehalten

Imprint / Disclaimer / Privacy