Bauhaus master houses, Ebertallee, construction period 1925/26, architect Walter Gropius, equipped with thermotechnical appliances by the Junkers factories. Walter Gropius wrote the following about the houses in 1930: "the organism of a house arises from the sequence of processes which take place in it. in a residence, these are the functions of residing, sleeping, bathing, cooking, eating which inevitably impart the character to the fabric of the house." He also noted the following about a picture in the living room in which a wall ventilator originating from the Junkers factories in Dessau could be seen: "today, many things appear to us to be luxury which will become normal just the day after tomorrow!"
The kitchens in the master houses were furnished by Marcel Breuer (Bauhaus carpentry workshop). Several thermotechnical gas appliances such as hot water flow-type calorifiers, gas stoves and gas ovens (Askania factories and Junkers & Co, both in Dessau) set trends in modern household technology.
The kitchen of the caretaker's flat in the Gropius house is furnished with kitchen furniture, design by Marcel Breuer. Appliances: Combined Askania cooker and oven, Junkers gas boiler. The photo also shows that the central heating in the Gropius house was not installed in a separate room in the cellar as was previously published, rather in the kitchen of the caretaker.
After taking up residence in the master houses and initial operations of the thermotechnical appliances, it was a technician employed by the Junkers factories who maintained not only the Junkers appliances but also tested and checked the behaviour of the appliances over the course of their permanent function during his role of caretaker from 1926-1935. With this applied research oriented toward continual improvement in characteristics of practical value which also involved questions and problems of contemporary materials research, Professor Hugo Junkers entered new territory.
Pump room, on the corner of Ziebigker Strasse and Ebertallee, 1932, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, architect. The long enclosing wall which Gropius built around his master house to screen it, did restrict the historical visual axis to the "Roman ruins" in the Georgium (called "Sieben "Säulen" or "seven pillars" by the locals). The 3rd director of the Bauhaus, Mies van der Rohe, restored this visual constellation ingeniously by a simple structural means. An opening for a window in the wall with a projecting panel over it to cover it - this is how the modern "refreshment stand" at the Ziebigk intersection appeared, the only structure in Dessau completed by Mies van der Rohe. So-called pump rooms, i.e. refreshment stands, of diverse structural design already existed in the Dessau urban area around 1880.
The Junkers factories construction firm also submitted drafts for pump houses and pavilions in 1929/32 for the purpose of reviving the urban area. It is not the artistic concept, rather a pragmatic work shaped by engineering technology that forms the foundation of these construction designs. A crucial aspect in the widely varied project planning carried out by Junkers.
Two-family house for employees of Junkers, Gropiusallee 72/74 in the Siedlung district, built in the Expressionist style in 1924/25. Design: Junkers site office. Object: Three-storey row house type each with generously laid out flats and attics. Symmetrically arranged triangular polygonal oriels which appear similar to crystal with their delicately constructed glass windows, liven up the simply designed house facades. The Junkers company signet, a flying Icarus modelled in plaster and framed in a triangle floats above the final stairwell window. Friedrich Peter Drömmer, expressionist painter and director of the advertising department of the Junkers factories, designed this logo in 1923. The facade of the building was designed by Drömmer - also with artistic intent. When the lighting in the rooms is reflected in the glass pans by the symmetry of the windows, an illumination effect occurs which makes the house light up like a crystal.
Expressionism was a renunciation of the naturalism of Art Nouveau, a tendency toward a constructive "engineered" development which, in its pertinent stylistic idiom, emphasised the characteristics of technical purpose and which culminated into modernity in the 1920s. Both buildings are distinguished examples of the social factory housing construction for employees that Junkers strove for.
Junkers one-room house on the corner of Kornhausstrasse and Am Georgengarten in the Ziebigk district, design by Siegfried Ebeling, Junkers construction firm in May of 1926. The intention was for the building with a self-supporting heat-insulated duraluminium plated membrane to stand on the grounds of the central press office of the Junkers-Nachrichten-Zentrale (news centre) in Kornhausstrasse. Junkers aviation and the sales department of Junkers-Flugzeugwerg AG had also been located in this area since 1919. The intention was also for the one-room house to be located so as to be in view from the Gropius house, which was in the preliminary stages of construction at that time.
With the realisation of this design, a highly interesting comparison of structural engineering would have been accomplished. The Junkers metal house in its segmented assembly method of construction meets the stone house construction with the concrete reinforcements and stone iron coverings of Bauhaus architecture. In contrast to Bauhaus, Professor Hugo Junkers took a different path. He built using lightweight metal, lamella constructions made of thin-walled profiled steel sheets and panel walls.
His crucial questions preceded him: "How heavy does a structure even need to be?" and he compared this to constructing an aeroplane.
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